1. Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women’s Rights Movement, 1945 to 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
2. Ginia Bellafante, “Is Feminism Dead?” Time 151 (1998): 25, http://www.time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988616-2,00.html/.
3. Riot Grrrl is a feminist punk music scene that developed in the early 1990s in the Northwest. It got national attention as a form of social movement activism by the mainstream press. Riot Grrrl organizing continues in the twenty-first century with online sites such as http://riotgrrrlonline.ning.com/. Marisa Meltzer, “Quiet Riot,” Bust Magazine (June/July 2010):71. For a history, see Sara Marcus, Girls to the Front: The True Story of the Riot Grrrl Revolution (New York: HarperCollins, 2010).
4. For example, Ariel Levy’s Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture (New York: Free Press, 2005).
5. Michael Winerip, “Where to Pass the Torch,” New York Times, March 8, 2009, http://nytimes.com/2009/03/08/fashion/08generationb.html/. Courtney Martin, “The End of the Women’s Movement,” The American Prospect, March 30, 2009, http://prospect.org/cs/articles/.
6. Mary Hawkesworth, “The Semiotics of Premature Burial: Feminism in a Postfeminist Age,” Signs 29 (2004):961–986.
7. Myra Marx Ferree, “Soft Repression: Ridicule, Stigma, and Silencing in GenderBased Movements,” in Authority in Contention, Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Daniel J. Myers and Daniel M. Cress, eds., 25 (2004): 85–101.
8. As cited in Stephanie Gilmore, “Bridging the Waves: Sex and Sexuality in a Second Wave Organization,” in Different Wavelengths: Studies of the Contemporary Women’s Movement, Jo Reger, ed. (New York: Routledge, 2005), 97.