Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know

By Andrew S. Natsios | Go to book overview

4
FOURTH PERIOD OF MODERN
SUDAN (1956–2005)

How did the first North-South civil war begin?

Between October 18 and 21, 1954, southern leaders organized a second Juba Conference, this time with no northern sanction or delegates present to guide the results. The conference voted for independence from Egypt (which affirmed the National Assembly’s vote against union), but only if the South was given autonomy in a federal system. Were such autonomy not afforded, the southerners insisted on self-determination, including the possibility of independence from the North. Thus, at this second Juba Conference, the nascent southern leadership proposed two of the central features of the CPA that was approved in 2005: an autonomous South within Sudan and, failing that, self-determination leading to possible independence. It would take fifty-one long and bloody years, 4 million deaths, and systematic campaigns by successive northern governments to emasculate southern tribal culture before the last decision of the second Juba Conference was realized: an independent South.


Fourth Period of Modern Sudan (1956–2005):
Independent Sudan

As more northern officials, merchants, and military officers streamed south to take the place of the departing British—800

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