1. Staff titles on campaigns are often inexact or left unspecified. There are often different versions of formal titles in Federal Election Commission filings, staffers themselves used many variants of titles when addressing their work, and many staffers changed positions during the course of these campaigns. I report the best approximation of these staffers’ titles here when they are available, choosing the most consistent way they represented themselves in interviews and on online sites such as LinkedIn, checked against how they were represented in organizational records. When the title is unclear, I use more general descriptions to capture staff positions on these campaigns, and rely on the narrative in the book to provide more context regarding organizational roles. In addition, there is not a clear moment when primary campaigns end and general election campaigns begin, as campaigns begin restructuring and staffing for general elections well in advance of the formal nominating process. The designation of ‘primary’ and ‘general’ election campaigns should therefore be considered approximate.
1. WPP Digital, a global communications firm, acquired Blue State Digital in December 2010.
2. A number of scholarly works have sought to explain the impressive mobilization around Obama’s candidacy. See Alexander, The Performance of Politics; Formisano, “Populist Currents in the 2008 Presidential Campaign”; Castells, Communication Power; and Knorr Cetina, “What Is a Pipe?.”
3. Michael Slaby, personal communication, August 18, 2010.
4. Schudson, The Good Citizen.
5. The campaign had over 3 million active volunteers, but still utilized paid phonebankers; Jamieson, Electing the President, 2008.
6. The trajectory of academic thought regardingnew media andpolitics canbe broken into three general periods: optimism, reinforcement, and collective action. The first dates from the early 1990s through to the collapse of the dot.com bubble and features optimistic accounts of the Internet’s effect on democracy. See Barber, “The New Telecommunications Technology”; and Grossman, The Electronic Republic. During the second wave that emerged at the turn of the century, a group of scholars argued that the Internet reinforced extant political power. See Bimber and Davis, Campaigning Online; Davis, The Web of Politics; and Margolis and Resnick, Politics As Usual. For an extensive overview of the literature on new media and politics see Neuman, Bimber, and Hindman, “The Internet and Four Dimensions of Citizenship”; and Boulianne, “Does Internet Use Affect Engagement?”.