Great Games, Local Rules: The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia

By Alexander Cooley | Go to book overview

NOTES

Chapter 1

1. For representative examples, see Philip Pan, “Russia Is Said to Have Fueled Unrest in Kyrgyzstan,” Washington Post, April 12, 2010; Ariel Cohen, “Obama’s Stake in the Second Kyrgyz Revolution,” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2010; Simon Tisdall, “Kyrgyzstan: A Russian Revolution?” Guardian, April 8, 2011.

2. For overviews that draw on nineteenth-century accounts and travelogues, see Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia (New York: Kodansha, 1990) ; Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia, revised edition (New York: Basic, 2006).

3. Though, a closer examination of the historical record also casts doubt on how many of these events and policies were actually set by British officials in London, as opposed to being local reactions to sudden crises. See Gordon Martel, “Documenting the Great Game: ‘World Policy’ and the ‘Turbulent Frontier’ in the 1890s,” The International History Review 2, no. 2 (April 1980), 288–320. Also see the more skeptical treatment in Gerald Morgan, “Myth and Reality in the Great Game,” Asian Affairs 4, no. 1 (1973), 55–65.

4. See Hopkirk’s harrowing account of the massacre. Hopkirk, The Great Game, 243–269.

5. H. J. Mackinder, “The Geographical Pivot of History,” The Geographical Journal 23, no. 4 (April 1904), 434–436.

6. Mackinder, “The Geographical Pivot of History,” 436.

7. See Pascal Venier, “The Geopolitical Pivot of History and Early Twentieth Century Political Culture,” The Geographic Journal 170, no. 2 (December 2004), 330–336; Gearóid Ó Tuathail, “Putting Mackinder in His Place: Material Transformations and Myth,” Political Geography 11, no. 1 (January 1992), 100–118.

8. See Peter Golden, Central Asia in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). On the distinctly illiberal institutional legacies bequeathed by these competing external powers, see Stephen Kotkin, “Mongol Commonwealth: Exchange and Governance across the Post-Mongol Space,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 8, no. 3 (Summer 2007).

9. For critical assessments of the analogy, see Nick Megoran, “Revisiting the ‘Pivot’: The Influence of Harold Mackinder on Analysis of Uzbekistan’s Foreign Policy,” The Geographical Journal 170, no. 4 (December 2004), 347–358; Matthew Edwards, “The New Great Game and the New Great Gamers: Disciples of Mackinder and Kipling,” Central Asian Survey 22, no. 1 (March 2003), 83–102.

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