1. John Rawls, A Brief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and Faith: With “On My Religion,”ed. Thomas Nagel (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009), 261.
2. “Seven Short Book Reviews,” Tikkun (May–June 2009).
3. Rawls, Brief Inquiry, 262–63.
4. Ibid., 265.
5. Oliver O’Donovan, Principles in the Public Realm: The Dilemma of Christian Moral Witness: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered before the University of Oxford on 24 May 1983 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1984), 4. Interestingly, Bonhoeffer was a student of Reinhold Niebuhr, the chief theological protagonist of Rawls’s undergraduate thesis.
6. Ibid., 5.
8. John Rawls, Political Liberalism, exp. ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), xxxvii.
9. Like the Nazi’s Jewish victims, Jehovah’s Witnesses were forced to wear a special patch on their clothing. They took their pacifistic witness with them even to the camps, however, where they were sought out by SS guards to work as barbers: The guards knew that a Witness would never slit their throat during shaving. Ernst Christian Helmreich, The German Churches under Hitler: Background, Struggle, and Epilogue (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1979), 397.
10. The story is summarized in David R. Manwaring, Render unto Caesar: The Flag-Salute Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). See also my “Not Pledging as Liturgy: Lessons from Karl Barth and American Mennonites on Refusing National Oaths,” Mennonite Quarterly Review 76: 4 (2002).
11. Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. (1940): 596.