1. The names of all study participants are pseudonyms, and the names of some locations and occupations have been modified to protect respondents’ privacy.
2. See Lofquist et al., Households and Families: 2010. The Census Bureau classifies a couple as “interracial” if one spouse or partner is not in the same single-race category (White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, or Some Other Race) as the other spouse or partner, or if at least one spouse or partner is in a multiple-race group. Within this classification, a marriage between one Hispanic and one non-Hispanic person is not defined as “interracial.”
3. See U.S. Census Bureau, Appendix Table 1. Put slightly differently, only 14 percent of heterosexual interracial married couples were Black/White. Common interracial pairs included Asian/White, Some Other Race/White, and marriages between two people who identified as multiple-race.
4. Zhenchao Qian and Daniel Lichter explain that cohabitation rates are increasing generally and that, among interracial couples, cohabitation may have advantages over marriage in circumventing the tensions that come from joining racially or ethnically dissimilar friendship and family networks. See Qian and Lichter, “Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation.”
5. See O’Connell et al., “New Estimates of Same-Sex Households.” Although the census does not directly ask citizens about their sexual orientation, enumerators do ask about the relationship of cohabiters. Therefore, in the 2000 U.S. Census and beyond, lesbian and gay couples can be quantified through the category of “same-sex unmarried partner households.” See also Sears et al., “Same-Sex Couples.”
6. See U.S. Census Bureau, “Hispanic Origin and Race of Female Unmarried-Partner Households” and “Hispanic Origin and Race of Male Unmarried-Partner Households.” Because the American Community Survey does not report the racial composition of different forms of intermarriage, and as this book went to press, racial and ethnic breakdowns for same-sex marriage was not available from the 2010 U.S. Census, these data are from the 2000 U.S. Census.