1. Ta’ib, Bimaristan’hayih Rasht az Mashrutah ta 1357 (Rasht, 1384/2005). This fascinating study documents the contributions of our family members and many others to the development of health care in Gilan. This work also highlights my grandmother’s charitable activities and her leadership role in the women’s clinic of Rasht.
1. Mary E. Fissell, Vernacular Bodies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). This section is drawn from my review essay of Fissell’s work, “Stepping Out of the Womb: Women and the Politics of Reproduction,” Journal of Women’s History 22, 3 (2010): 195–99
2. “Az tavvalud-i bachih’ha chih midanid?” [What do you know about the birth of babies?], Banu, No. 1, Azar 1323/November-December 1944, 7–8 Some of the questions included the following: Do women give birth to more boys during wartime? (yes); Is it possible to determine the gender of a fetus from the heartbeat of a woman? (no); Do women who master domesticity tend to give birth to boys? (no); Do the main causes of infertility have more to do with a woman’s body? (yes); Does the use of birth control bring about infertility? (no).
3. As Koven and Michel have argued, “Maternalism always operated on two levels: it extolled the private virtues of domesticity while simultaneously legitimating women’s public relationships to politics and the state, to community, workplace, and marketplace.” Seth Koven and Sonya Michel, “Womanly Duties: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States, 1880–1920,” American Historical Review 95, 4 (1990), 1079.
4. Camron Amin, The Making of the Modern Iranian Woman: Gender, State Policy, and Popular Culture, 1865–1946 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002). Amin discusses the many professional opportunities that opened up to Iranian women in the interwar era. For women as embodiments of the nation, see Afsaneh Najmabadi, “The Erotic Vatan [Homeland] as Beloved and Mother: To Love, to Possess, and to Protect,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 39, 3 (1997): 442–67 Also, F. Kashani-Sabet, “The Frontier Phenomenon: Perceptions of the Land in Iranian Nationalism,” Critique 38, 3 (1997): 19–38; F. Kashani-Sabet, Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804–1946 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), chs. 4, 6; F. Kashani-Sabet,