Hybrid Factories in the United States: The Japanese-Style Management and Production System under the Global Economy

By Tetsuji Kawamura | Go to book overview

4
Case Reports of Hybrid Factories in
the United States

4.1 Toyota Indiana: New Attempts to Implement
TPS in the American Environment

KUNIO KAMIYAMA

Toyota Indiana Plant: An Overview

Production operations at Toyota’s Indiana plant started in December 1999. This was Toyota’s third local auto assembly plant in the United States since the 1980s; Toyota had previously launched NUMMI, a joint venture with GM, and later its 100%-owned Kentucky plant. Toyota announced its decision to launch a new production site selection in Princeton, Indiana, in November 1995, and established its subsidiary operation for this purpose in November 1996. Toyota expressed its new plans for expanding production at the Kentucky plant and for constructing a new assembly plant in the United States as a part of its “New International Business Plan” on June 29,1995. A key factor leading up to this announcement was the Japan-U.S. automobile talks in May, which first broke off and then reached a final agreement. In addition, while it had been steadily enhancing its competitiveness in the car sector, Toyota took further steps in the 1990s to strengthen its efforts in producing commercial vehicles in the U.S. market.

By the time of our visit on September 6, 2001, the number of employees amounted to about 2,500 (including 30 Japanese expatriates). Production was growing quickly: it had been at 130,000 units in 2000, and then steadily scaled up to 169,000 units in 2001 and 187,000 in 2002. At that time, Toyota was producing two products, a full-size pickup and an SUV, and they had scheduled the production of minivans in the new plant under construction. While the U.S. Big Three had pursued their expanded auto business by shifting in the 1990s to North American-specific models of full-size pickups and SUVs, Toyota had put more emphasis on local production operations making passenger cars. In that sense, the Indiana plant is a quite notable case for Toyota. They launched and successfully

-201-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Hybrid Factories in the United States: The Japanese-Style Management and Production System under the Global Economy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 299

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.