Hybrid Factories in the United States: The Japanese-Style Management and Production System under the Global Economy

By Tetsuji Kawamura | Go to book overview

6
Conclusion
Characteristic Hybrid Patterns of Japanese Transplants
in the United States and Their Implications

TETSUJI KAWAMURA

In this concluding chapter, we summarize the hybridization dynamics of the management and production systems in major Japanese transplants that we surveyed in 2000–2001, especially in light of specific local conditions that constrained the transfer of the JMPS to the United States. Now that we have horizontally compared the hybrid patterns in North America with those in Europe and Asia in chapter 3, here we will focus on the major changes in application-adaptation patterns and hybridization dynamics in the United States since our 1989 survey. What factors in North America have exerted major influences on those changes? What local conditions in the United States have affected the transfer of the JMPS to Japanese transplants in North America?

We also will examine some limitations or weaknesses in the hybrid model that our most recent findings have brought to light.


Overall Characteristics of the Hybrid Pattern in the 2000–2001 Survey

The average degree of application was 3.2 for the 37 Japanese transplants in the United States surveyed and evaluated in the latest survey. This score is almost identical with the average for 34 similar plants surveyed in 1989. This means there has been very little change in the overall degree of application in the United States; the change leans slightly to the application side and is not much different from the average scores of Japanese transplants in other major regions surveyed. The average level in the United States in the latest survey is just below that in Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore) (3.3), the same as in Britain, Korea, and Taiwan (3.2), and just over that of Europe. Although a simple comparison may not be warranted due to differences in the years of the surveys, it appears that transfer of the JMPS in overseas transplants is almost identical across regions.

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