1. Minnie Abrams, The Baptism of the Holy Ghost & Fire (Kedgaon, India: Mukti Mission, 1906); Gary B. McGee, “‘Latter Rain’ Falling in the East: Early-Twentieth-Century Pentecostalism in India and the Debate over Speaking in Tongues,” Church History 68 (September 1999): 648–65.
2. Quoted in Gary B. McGee, “Minnie F. Abrams: Another Context, Another Founder,” in James R. Goff Jr. and Grant Wacker, eds., Portraits of a Generation: Early Pentecostal Leaders (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002), 94.
3. Abrams, The Baptism, 3–12, 42, 64, 69–70, 72, 77, 88; McGee, “‘Latter Rain’”; Meera Kosambi, At the Intersection of Gender Reform and Religious Belief: Pandita Ramabais Contribution and the Age of Consent Controversy (Bombay: Research Centre for Women’s Studies, 1993), 76–77.
4. The book, which scholars have called the first major work of Pentecostal theology of mission, may be the most important document in the birth of world Pentecostalism. Abrams, The Baptism; Gary B. McGee, “‘Baptism of the Holy Ghost and Fire!’ The Mission Legacy of Minnie F. Abrams,” Missiology 27 (October 1999): 515–22; McGee, “Minnie F. Abrams,” 86–104; Dana L. Robert, American Women in Mission: A Social History of Their Thought and Practice (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1996), 244–54.
5. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: the Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 45; Joe Creech, “Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History,” Church History 65 (September 1996): 405–24.
6. The Westernization thesis is so pervasive that space prohibits the major part of this body of literature to be listed here. For representative examples, see Patricia Grimshaw, “‘Christian Woman, Pious Wife, Faithful Mother, Devoted Missionary’: Conflicts in Roles of American Missionary Women in Nineteenth Century Hawaii,” Feminist Studies 9 (Fall 1983): 489–521; Edward H. Berman, African Reactions to Missionary Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 1975), 6; George Tinker, Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993); Sylvia Jacobs, “The Historical Role of Afro-Americans in American Missionary Efforts in Africa,” in Sylvia Jacobs, ed., Black Americans and the Missionary Movement in Africa (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1982), 6; Jean Comaroff and Joan Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution: Christianity, Colonialism and Consciousness in South Africa, vols. 1 and 2 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). Even among scholars for whom missionaries are not a primary focus of their work, the cultural-imperialism model still functions as their default explanation. See, for instance, Karen Armstrong, Holy War: The Crusades and Their Impact on Today’s World (New York: Anchor, 2001), 411–12; Ivan Eland, “Globo Cop Runs Amok: Bipartisan Foolishness in U.S. Foreign Policy,” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 9, 2005, B14. For examples