|AAS||American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.|
|APS||American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa.|
|CRBMC||Rare Book and Manuscript Collection, Columbia University Library, New York, N.Y.|
|DL||David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.|
|HSP||Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.|
|LC||Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.|
|LCP||Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.|
|MMA||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y.|
|NYBGS||New York Biographical and Genealogical Society|
|NYHS||New-York Historical Society|
|PMA||Philadelphia Museum of Art|
|PMHB||PennsylvaniaMagazine of History andBiography|
|SCHS||South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston|
|WML||Winterthur Museum and Library, Winterthur, Del.|
|WMQ||Williamand Mary Quarterly|
1 Bernard Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees and Other Writings, ed. E. J. Hundert (Indianapolis, Ind., 1997), 28, 33.
2 Erin Mackie, Market à la Mode: Fashion, Commodity, and Gender in “The Tatler” and “The Spectator” (Baltimore, 1997), 14–20. Mackie focuses on fashion as antithetical to an emerging bourgeois public sphere of rational debate.
3 Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, 138.
4 Samuel Adams to James Warren, October 20, 1778, in Paul H. Smith, Gerard W. Gawalt, Rosemary Fry Plakas, Eugene R. Sheridan, and Ronald M. Gephard, eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789, CD ROM (Summerfield, Fla., 1998).
5 James Eli Adams writes that the dandy, the fop’s equally fashionable and effeminate nineteenth- century counterpart, came into focus during periods of masculine identity under stress or revision. See Adams, Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Masculinity (Ithaca, N.Y., 1995), 55.
6 Objects are an element of my study, but its focus is not a consideration of material culture. Rather than beginning with and proceeding from an analysis of artifacts, I approach fashion first as a discursive practice, which illuminates material culture as a site of power struggles and contested meanings. Studies of early America that