In addition to the abbreviations found in the text, the following source abbreviations are used in the notes.
|AAG||Acting Adjutant General|
|AM||Archives of Manitoba, Winnipeg|
|BW||Black Worker (New York)|
|CPA||Canadian Pacific Archives, Montreal, Quebec|
|DND||Department of National Defence|
|DT||Dawn of Tomorrow (Hamilton, Ont.)|
|EEJ||Edmonton (Alta.) Evening Journal|
|HCD||House of Commons Debates|
|IBR||Immigration Branch Records, Library and Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario|
|LAC||Library and Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario|
|LG||Department of Labour, Labour Gazette|
|LH||Lethbridge (Alta.) Herald|
|LC||Library of Congress|
|MD||Militia and Defence Collection, Library and Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario|
|MFP||Manitoba Free Press (Winnipeg)|
|NYT||New York Times|
|PANS||Public Archives of Nova Scotia, Halifax|
1. Manitoba Daily Free Press (Winnipeg), 2 July 1886.
2. Bonar, Montreal and the Inauguration of Trans-Canada Transportation; MFP, 2 July 1886.
3. W. F. Salisbury to Mrs. Salisbury, 5 July 1886, RG31 CPA.
4. Mayor H. S. Wesbrook’s speech as quoted in Manitoba Daily Free Press, 2 July 1886.
6. There has always been some controversy over the terms used to refer to people of African descent. Given that blacks in Canada were ethnically diverse, no single term accurately captures their nuanced identities. Here, all black people in Canada will be referred to as either “black” or “African Canadian,” regardless of citizenship status. When making specific reference to those born elsewhere, I will refer to them ethnically—e.g., African Americans, West Indians, or Jamaicans.
7. LH, 22 March 1911; MFP, 27 March 1911.