1 See my article, “From the Heart of the Qurʾan Belt,” Religious Studies News, May 2003, available online (with other sources on the controversy) at http://www.unc .edu/˜cernst/quran.htm (accessed February 12, 2011).
2 For a detailed sociological study of the actual attitudes of American Muslims toward extremist violence, see David Schanzer, Charles Kurzman, and Ebrahim Moosa, “AntiTerror Lessons of Muslim-Americans,” Report for the National Institute of Justice, January 6, 2010, http://www.sanford.duke.edu/news/Schanzer_Kurzman_Moosa_ Anti-Terror_Lessons.pdf (accessed February 12, 2011). See also Charles Kurzman’s collection, “Islamic Statements against Terrorism,” http://www.unc.edu/˜kurzman/ terror.htm (accessed February 12, 2011).
3 The extent to which we do not understand the details of this process is underlined by Andrew Rippin’s foreword, in John Wansbrough, Qurʾanic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation, ed. Andrew Rippin (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 2004 ), xv–xviii.
4 Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London: Routledge, 1988).
5 Alexander Stille, “Radical New Views of Islam and the Origins of the Koran,” New York Times, March 2, 2002, http://www.rim.org/muslim/qurancrit.htm (accessed February 12, 2011).
6 Peter Wright, email communication, May 23, 2010.
7 Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).
8 Journal of Qurʾanic Studies, published by Edinburgh University Press since 1999; The Blackwell Companion to the Qurʾan, ed. Andrew Rippin (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006); The Cambridge Companion to the Qurʾan, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); The Koran, ed. Colin Turner, Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies, 4 vols. (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); The Qurʾan: An Encyclopedia, ed. Oliver Leaman (London: Routledge, 2008); The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 6 vols. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2002–7).
9 John B. Gabel, Charles B. Miller, and Anthony York, The Bible as Literature: An Intro-