This project began many years ago in a graduate seminar on U.S. legal history taught by Mary Frances Berry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1991. I am very grateful for Professor Berry’s guidance, Gerald Neuman’s suggestions, and Henry Abelove’s and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg’s mentorship during this stage of my work. For the inspiration of their example and the encouragement they have provided for my work on the history of sexuality, I thank John D’Emilio, Martin Duberman, Jonathan Ned Katz, Elizabeth Kennedy, and Leila Rupp. John and Leila have read and reviewed various components of this book and have responded with consistent generosity and excellent advice. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my History, Women’s Studies, and Sexuality Studies colleagues and students at York University, especially Bettina Bradbury, Stephen Brooke, Marc Egnal, Jerry Ginsburg, Doug Hay, Craig Heron, Molly LaddTaylor, Kate McPherson, Jeanette Neeson, Anne Rubenstein, and Miriam Smith.
Librarians and archivists make historical research possible, and in working on this book I have been assisted by the staffs of first-rate research collections, including the Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives; the Gay and Lesbian Historical Society of Northern California; the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Archives of Philadelphia; the Gotlieb Archival Research Center at Boston University; the Human Sexuality Collection at Cornell University; the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan; the Lesbian Herstory Archives; the Library of Congress; Miller Library at Colby College; the June L. Mazer Collection in Los Angeles; the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library at Princeton University; the National Archives; the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College; the New York Public Library; the ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives at the University of Southern California; Robarts Library at the University of Toronto; the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study; Scott Library at York University; the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas–Austin; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services; the Urban Archives at Temple University; and the Yale University Library’s Manuscripts and Archives.
One of the most rewarding aspects of my research on this project has been the opportunity to communicate with some of the book’s protagonists and members of their families. For their generosity and their willingness to share their materials, memories, and reflections, I thank Clive Boutilier’s niece Patty, members of the Freedman and Rosenberg families (Michael Freedman, the late Paul Laven, the late Jeanette Laven, Michael Meeropol, and Allen Young), Gilbert Cantor’s son Anthony Cantor, Alan Levine, Burt Neuborne, and Montague Ullman.
My work has benefitted greatly from the responses of chairs, commentators, co-panelists, and audiences at the annual conventions of the American Historical Association (Ramón Gutiérrez), the American Society for Legal History (Pat Cain and Mary Louise Adams), the American Studies Association (Sharon Ullman), the Canadian Association for American Studies, the Canadian Lesbian and Gay Studies Association, the Committee on Lesbian and Gay History (Vicki Eaklor, Karen Krahulik, and Leisa Meyer), and the Organization of Ameri-