War! What Is It Good for? Black Freedom Struggles and the U.S. Military from World War II to Iraq

By Kimberley L. Phillips | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Edwin Starr, “War” (MOT-464, 1970); U.S. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Dutton, 1968), 109–12, 229–32; L. Deckle McLean, “The Black Man and the Draft,” Ebony, August 1968, 61; Morris J. MacGregor, Integration of the Armed Services, 1940– 1965 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1981).

2. The Temptations first recorded “War!,” written by Norman Whitfield, a veteran, and Barrett Strong, as a salve to audiences demanding that Motown address the Vietnam War, but the company refused to release it as a single out of a fear that it might alienate fans who supported the war. The Funk Brothers, many of whom were veterans, provided the distinctive rhythm for Starr’s version. See Temptations, “War,” Psychedelic Shack (GS947, 1970), and Starr, “War.” On Motown’s concerns, see Suzanne E. Smith, Dancing in the Street: Motown and the Cultural Politics of Detroit (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 235–36. On Motown’s general process of “do-overs,” see Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 376.

3. “Machine Gun,” Band of Gypsys (Columbia, 1970). Discussions of Hendrix’s guitar techniques usually focus on sexual imagery and ignore his myriad representations of war’s violence. See Steve Waksman, Instruments of Desire: The Electric Guitar and the Shaping of Musical Experience (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 167–206.

4. Charles R. Cross, Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix (New York: Hyperion, 2005), 82–89; “Machine Gun,” Band of Gypsys; David Cortright, Soldiers in Revolt: GI Resistance during the Vietnam War (1975; reprint, Chicago: Haymarket Press, 2005), 74–75, 88–89.

5. Jimi Hendrix, Jimi Hendrix Live at Woodstock (Seattle: Hal Leonard, 1995), 115. For a discussion of the long history of America’s “regenerative militarism,” see Jackson Lears, Rebirth of a Nation: The Making of Modern America, 1877–1920 (New York: Harper, 2009), 1–11, and Stephen E. Feinberg, “Randomization and Social Affairs: The 1970 Draft Lottery,” Science 22 (January 1971): 255–61.

6. Anders Stephanson, Manifest Destiny: American Expansion and the Empire of Right (New York: Hill and Wang, 1996); Clive Webb, Rabble Rousers: The American Far Right in the Civil Rights Era (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010).

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