1. See esp. Michael A. Morrison, Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 276.
2. See C. C. Goen, Broken Churches, Broken Nation: Denominational Schisms and the Coming of the American Civil War (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1985), 3–9; Garry Wills, Head and Heart: A History of Christianity in America (New York: Penguin, 2007), chapter 18, “Schisms over Slavery.”
3. Peter J. Parish, The American Civil War (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1975), 66. Parish’s perspective is all the more valuable for having come from a British professor at the University of Glasgow.
4. William E. Gienapp, “The Crisis of American Democracy: The Political System and the Coming of the Civil War,” in Why the Civil War Came, edited by Gabor S. Boritt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 110.
5. The votes of the Electoral College were not officially counted and announced in Washington, D.C., until 13 February 1861. As Gienapp points out, “Under the winnertake-all principle” that determined how almost all states awarded their electoral votes, “Lincoln received 98 percent of the North’s electoral votes although he won less than 54 percent of the popular vote in the free states” (ibid., 87).
6. L. E. Chittenden, A Report of the Debates and Proceedings in the Secret Session of the Conference Convention, for Proposing Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, Held at Washington, D.C., in February A.D. 1861 (New York: Appleton, 1864), 14.
7. The inconclusive evidence available to historians suggests that Lincoln’s antislavery call for containing black bondage and thereby limiting the slaveocracy’s political clout appealed most strongly to the free states’ younger voters—those in their twenties and thirties. The younger generation of voters in the slave states seem to have responded most positively to Breckinridge, the sitting vice president, whom they saw as most determined to defend southern rights. Even so, many exceptions to this generalization existed. There seems to be a growing and constructive interest in generational studies that identify age cohorts. See, for example, Peter S. Carmichael, The Last Generation: Young Virginians in Peace, War, and Reunion (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005); Yonatan Eyal, The Young America Movement and the Transformation of the Democratic Party, 1828–1861 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
8. James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 264.
9. Abraham Lincoln, “Proclamation Calling Militia and Convening Congress, April 15, 1861,” in Abraham Lincoln, Speeches and Writings, 1859–1865, edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher (New York: Library of America, 1989), 232.