1. Barzun’s quote is from Jules Tygiel, Past Time: Baseball as History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), ix; Peter C. Bjarkman, Diamonds around the Globe: The Encyclopedia of International Baseball (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005); George Gmelch, ed., Baseball without Borders: The International Pastime (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006); Joseph A. Reaves, Taking in a Game: A History of Baseball in Asia (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004); Leonard Cassuto and Stephen Partridge, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Baseball (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011). For early Cuban baseball, see Roberto Gonzalez Echevarría, The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999); and Louis A. Pérez Jr., On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), particularly 75–83. For an account of early baseball in Mexico, see Pedro Treto Cisneros, The Mexican League (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002). For baseball in the Dominican Republic, Alan M. Klein, Sugarball: The American Game, the Dominican Dream (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991). See also Colin D. Howell, “Baseball and Borders: The Diffusion of Baseball into Mexican and Canadian-American Borderland Regions, 1885–1911,” Nine 11, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 16–26. Studies of A. G. Spalding’s baseball world tour (188889) abound. For the most recent works, see Mark Lamster, Spalding’s World Tour: The Epic Adventure That Took Baseball around the Globe—and Made It America’s Game (New York: Public Affairs, 2006); and Thomas W. Zeiler, Ambassadors in Pinstripes: The Spalding World Baseball Tour and the Birth of the American Empire (New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006).
2. In this book I use the narrow definition of “Americans,” meaning the people who reside within the territories of the United States.
3. The study of baseball in Japan has produced a significant accumulation of English-language literature, especially for the post-World War II period. Some of the best-known English-language works written for popular readership include Robert Whiting, The Chrysanthemum and the Bat: The Game Japanese Play (Tokyo: Permanent Press, 1977) and You Gotta Have Wa (New York: Vintage, 1990); and Robert Obojski, The Rise of Japanese Baseball Power (Radnor, PA: Chilton Books, 1975). Ikei Masaru’s Hakkyū Taiheiyōwo Wataru (Tokyo: Chūo Kōron Shinsha, 1974) is the trailblazing study of the role of baseball in U.S.-Japanese relations. For a more recent study of Japanese baseball, see Sakaue Yasuhiro, Nippon Yakyū no Keifugaku (Tokyo: Seikyūsha, 2001). For useful counterpoint to Whiting’s notion of “samurai baseball,” see William Kelly, “Samurai Baseball: The Vicissitudes of a National Sporting Style,” International Journal of the History of Sport 26, no. 3 (2009): 429–41; and Thomas Blackwood, “Through Sweat and Tears: High School Baseball and the Socialization of Japanese Boys” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 2005). For the pre-World War II period, see Donald Roden, “Baseball and the Quest for National Dignity in Meiji Japan,” American Historical Review 85 (1980): 511–34; Satoshi Shimizu, “The Creation of Professional Sports