Buddhist Fury: Religion and Violence in Southern Thailand

By Michael K. Jerryson | Go to book overview

NOTES

Introduction

* King Vajiravudh, Rama VI, From The Buddhist Attitude toward National Defense and Administration (1916)

1. Personal interview over the phone with Ačhān Pim from Pattani, August 14, 2004.

2. Ibid.

3. Srisompob Jitpiromsri, “Sixth Year of the Southern Fire: Dynamics of Insurgency and Formation of the New Imagined Violence,” Deep South Watch (Prince of Songkhla University: Center for Conflict Studies and Cultural Diversity, 2010), 1.

4. Buddhist monks often discussed the murders of soldiers, police, and other monks. This became a nightly topic under the pavilion. However, monks rarely, if ever, reflected on the increasing number of Muslim deaths around them. Peace Studies scholar Chaiwat Sathaanand observed similar sentiments in 2005: “The divisions are indeed deepening between the Buddhists and the Muslims due to the taboos being violated and the escalating violence.” Marwaan Macan-Markar, “Fighting for Peace in Thailand,” Asia Times, November 3, 2005, accessed at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/GK03Ae01.html on January 28, 2007.

5. “I call such images ‘cosmic’ because they are larger than life. They evoke great battles of the legendary past, and they relate to metaphysical conflicts between good and evil. Notions of cosmic war are intimately personal but can also be translated to the social plane. Ultimately, though, they transcend human experience.” Mark Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 146.

6. Kamala Tiyavanich, Forest Recollections: Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997).

7. Political protests and massive demonstrations led to violent clashes between organized protestors and Thai armed personnel—most particularly devastating on April 10, April 22, and May 19 of 2010. “Ajahn, who has been a monk for 22 years, admits that the political situation in the country has broken society into two and that it is hard even for monks to control their thoughts, feelings and rise above the political divide. So, there are red monks who are anti-government and followers of ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and yellow monks who are pro-government and for Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva.” Shahanaaz Habib, The Eng Hock, and Brian Moh, “Staying Neutral Is Hard for Monks,” The Star Online, April 19, 2010.

8. State is capitalized in accordance with Antonio Gramsci’s neo-Marxist concepts of domination and hegemony in his State/Civil Society dichotomy. Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, ed. and trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), xiv. While the State cannot be

-189-

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Buddhist Fury: Religion and Violence in Southern Thailand
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures and Tables vii
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - Histories 28
  • 2 - Representation 50
  • 3 - Practice 82
  • 4 - Militarization 114
  • 5 - Identity 143
  • Conclusion 178
  • Appendix 187
  • Notes 189
  • Bibliography 233
  • Index 249
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