1. “Protests Delay Razing of House,” NYT, November 22, 1966, 40.
2. Ibid. A few of the signs described are from another demolition protest by the BHA a few months later; see “A Brooklyn Carriage Brigade Routs Town House Wreckers,” NYT, April 15, 1967, 1.
3. “The Consequences of Brownstone Fever,” NYM, March 31, 1969; “Brownstone Fever in Park Slope,” TB, November 1, 1968;Michael Armstrong, The Phoenix Brownstone Guide, 1980–1981 Edition (New York: Michael Armstrong, 1980).
4. “Responsible Approach to Saving Abandoned Brownstones: Save Social ‘Mix’ in Your Neighborhood,” TB, April 2, 1969; “Landmark House and Garden Tour,” BHT, supplement to the Phoenix, May 2, 1974.
5. “Responsible Approach to Saving Abandoned Brownstones.”
6. “Displacement Report to the Gowanus-Boerum Hill Community,” unpublished booklet, August 1980, BCBPL.
7. “Manhattan: The New Brooklyn,” Time Out New York, April 4, 2002.
8. Caroline F. Ware, Greenwich Village 1920–1930: A Comment on American Civilization in the Post-War Years (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935), 9–15; Chad Heap, Slumming and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885–1940 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009); National Urban Coalition, Displacement: City Neighborhoods in Transition, 4; J. Thomas Black, Allan Borut, and Robert Dubinsky, Private-Market Housing Renovation in Older Urban Areas (Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 1977), 1, 7–37.
9. Since discovering the phenomenon in the late 1970s, geographers and sociologists have produced a copious amount of literature theorizing gentrification and analyzing contemporary case studies. Few can agree on a definition of the term, why it happens, or whether it is a benefit or detriment to cities. Most agree, though, that the debate has reached a stalemate. Rather than attempting to retheorize gentrification, this book draws on the theoretical work of social scientists to take a historical approach of examining the process over time. For a comprehensive overview of the literature on gentrification, see Loretta Lees, Tom Slater, and Elvin Wyly, Gentrification (New York: Routledge, 2008). For a description of the “stalemate,” see Sharon Zukin, “Gentrification: Culture and Capital in the Urban Core,” Annual Review of Sociology 13 (1987): 129–47. Several works have been particularly useful to this study. For a scathing critique of frontier imagery in gentrifying districts, see Neil Smith, The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City (New York: Routledge, 1996). For an analysis of the culture and politics of the “new middle class” and links to the counterculture in gentrifying Canadian cities, see David Ley, The