During the course of preparing this book, I have benefited from the generous support of many individuals and institutions to whom I wish to extend my sincerest thanks. Several grants and fellowships enabled me to travel to archives scattered across the United States and afforded me time to write up my findings. These included a Woodrow Wilson Dissertation Grant in Women’s Studies, a Smithsonian Institution Predoctoral Research Fellowship, an Albert J. Beveridge Grant from the American Historical Association, a Horace Samuel and Marion Galbraith Merrill Travel Grant in Twentieth-Century Political History from the Organization of American Historians, an Ida B. Wells Grant from the Coordinating Council for Women in History, a King V. Hostick Award from the Illinois State Historical Society, a UCLA Roscrans Dissertation Year Fellowship, and grants from UCLA’s History Department, Center for the Study of Women, Institute of American Cultures, and Center for African American Studies. Receiving the Lerner-Scott Dissertation Prize from the Organization of American Historians and the Mary Wollstonecraft Dissertation Award from the UCLA Center for the Study of Women gave me the confidence that this was a project worth transforming into a book. A University of California President’s Research Fellowship in the Humanities and a UC Davis Faculty Development Award, as well as postdoctoral fellowships at Princeton University’s Center for the Study of Religion and Harvard University’s Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, provided me the time and resources necessary for undertaking this task.
I relied upon numerous archivists for help identifying collections essential for recovering this history. For their guidance, I wish to thank the staffs of Howard University’s Moorland-Spingarn Research Collection, the Library of Congress Manuscripts Division, the University of Chicago Library’s Special Collections, the University Archives at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Illinois at Chicago’s Special Collections, the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, the University of Delaware’s Special Collections, and the Presbyte-