The following abbreviations are used in the notes.
|CABP||Claude A. Barnett Papers, Chicago Historical Society|
|HMFP||Hanna-McCormick Family Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.|
|HQBP||Hallie Q. Brown Papers, Hallie Q. Brown Memorial Library, Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio|
|IMGP||Irene McCoy Gaines Papers, Chicago Historical Society|
|IWP||Illinois Writers Project: “Negro in Illinois” Papers, Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature, Carter G. Woodson Regional Public Library, Chicago|
|MCTP||Mary Church Terrell Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.|
|NACWP||Records of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, 1895–1992, Part 1: Minutes of National Conventions, Publications, and President’s Office Correspondence, ed. Lillian Serece Williams and Randolph Boehm (Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America), microfilm|
|NHBP||Nannie Helen Burroughs Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.|
|WDNCP||Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee Papers, 1933–1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York|
1 “Mr. Elmnm and Ella Elmnm,” [n.d.], box 10, folder 28, IWP.
3 Between 1880 and 1920, an average of 73 percent of black men and women employed in the state worked in agriculture. Close to 90 percent of women not engaged in farm labor earned a very modest income as either domestics or laundresses. Fon Louise Gordon, Caste and Class, 64–69, 84–85.
4 I have not been able to locate documentation of Ella Elm’s birth date. I have situated Elm within the chronology of Arkansas’s disfranchisement battles according to the