Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands

By Juliana Barr | Go to book overview

notes

INTRODUCTION

1. Memorial of the College of Zacatecas to King Ferdinand VI, Jan. 15, 1750, in Leutenegger and Habig, Texas Missions of the College of Zacatecas, 54; Pedro de Rivera, “Diario y Derrotero” [Diary and Itinerary], in J. Jackson, Imaginary Kingdom, 41; report by Tomás Felipe Winthuysen, Aug. 19, 1744, Béxar Archives, Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin (hereafter cited as BA); strength reports and daily records of occurrences for the cavalry company of the royal presidio of San Antonio de Béxar for Jan. 1781, Mar. and Apr. 1783, BA; marqués de Rubí, Dictamen of Apr. 10, 1768, in J. Jackson, Imaginary Kingdom, 181–82. Historian Peter Gerhard argues that “In no other colonial gobierno [area ruled by a governor] of America was the Spanish presence so tenuous as in Texas. Uninterrupted Spanish settlement here lasted just over a century, and it was confined to a few frontier outposts surrounded by ‘unreduced’ and often hostile Indians. The area under control was not always the same, as missions and garrisons were founded, moved about, and abandoned.” Gerhard, North Frontier of New Spain, 335–38.

2. In Rubí’s plan, implemented in the royal “Regulations” of 1772, San Antonio de Béxar and La Bahía would be the only towns above the line of presidios, spread at one-hundredmile intervals from the Gulf of Mexico to California, to mark the northern limits of Spanish dominion and defense. Marqués de Rubí, Dictamen of Apr. 10, 1768, in J. Jackson, Imaginary Kingdom, 181, 185, 195.

3. Morfi, History of Texas, 2:273; “Report of the Journey Made by Don Nicolás de Lafora in Company with Marqués de Rubí to Review the Interior Presidios,” in Lafora, Frontiers of New Spain, 185–86.

4. Cabeza de Vaca, Account; Adorno, “Negotiation of Fear,” 176; Wade, “Go-Between,” 333, 339.

5. Chipman, Spanish Texas, 205–6; Tjarks, “Comparative Demographic Analysis of Texas.” See Weber, Spanish Frontier in North America, 195, for comparison with the population of other provinces.

6. Teja, “Spanish Colonial Texas,” 114, 120–23, “St. James at the Fair,” and San Antonio de Béxar; J. Jackson, Los Mesteños; Weber, Spanish Frontier in North America, 192.

7. The work offering the best, indeed magisterial, narration of the cross-cultural relations of Spanish and Indian peoples in Texas (as well as New Mexico) during this period is John, Storms Brewed in Other Men’s Worlds.

-293-

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