1. In the following discussion, I use the English translation of this manuscript, as it appears in Tac, “Indian Life and Customs,” 94.
3. In Kiowa Humanity, Jacki Rand discusses Pratt’s assimilation plans for the Fort Marion prisoners and how one Kiowa artist he enlisted to produce ledger drawings, Wo- haw, probably employed the art form to “express experiences and observations that radically challenged the discussions and patterns of the colonizers” (102).
1. Apess, On Our Own Ground, 120. Barry O’Connell argues that even though Experiences was not published until 1835, this passage “seems unambiguously a reference to A Son of the Forest, not an entirely new second autobiography, and thus suggests that some, if not most of Experiences was drafted before the writing of A Son of the Forest in 1828/29” (120n1). If O’Connell is right, then Apess had conceived of his entire career as a writer (and perhaps his whole public self- presentation) in terms of a broader culture of the book.
2. In 1653, Eliot had produced a combined primer and catechism in the Algonquian language. Between 1653 and 1663, he released portions of the Bible as they became available in translation. His efforts culminated in the 1663 Bible, with its complete Old and New Testaments all in one volume. See Eliot, Eliot Tracts (13–14), for more detail on the chronology of these texts.
3. Rice, Transformation of Authorship, 3.
4. Crain, Story of A, 4.
5. Gilmore, Reading Becomes a Necessity, title page.
6. Hall, Cultures of Print, 43, 51.
7. See also Willard B. Walker, “Native Writing Systems,” 158–86; and Warkentin, “In Search of ‘the Word,’ ” 16.
8. DeMallie and Parks, “Plains Indian Native Literatures,” 126. Discussing the Lakota language manuscripts of George Sword (1847–1910), DeMallie has argued that such texts “are not … simply written versions of oral narratives but are instead a new type of written narrative” (126).
9. 18 U.S. Code, Section 1151.
10. My point here is not that oral traditions reached their perfection in printed versions, but merely that they entered into printed texts at this time, at the instigation of both Native and non- Native writers. This book will explore the vexed relationships that