1. Starr, “Bywater Neighborhood Boasts City’s Last Plantation,” 16.
2. The Ninth Ward also included T.J. Semmes, McDonogh No. 19, and William Frantz elementary schools, which were integrated over the aggressive protests of whites. See Thevenot, “McDonogh Three” and “Unintended Consequences”; also Caddell, “White Flight and the Desegregation of the New Orleans Public Schools.”
3. See Rothman, Slave Country, 147.
4. For more about the relationships/tensions between New Orleans Creoles of color and black “Americans,” see Logsdon and Bell, “Americanization of Black New Orleans,” 201–61. Joy J. Jackson mentions the railroad’s participation in New Orleans in the Gilded Age, 201.
5. Accounts differ as to whether this person was a plant in the car, Plessy himself, or in one case, the conductor. See Jackson, New Orleans in the Gilded Age: Roach, Cities of the Dead, 185, 235; Robinson, “Forms of Appearance of Value”; and Medley, We as Freemen.
6. Eric Sundquist comments in a discussion of the case, “In the legal rise of Jim Crow, the South received the blessings of a Northern Court,” while “in the cultural rise of Jim Crow, the North adopted Southern plantation ideology” (“Mark Twain and Homer Plessy,” 124).
7. Locke, Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, ill. Emphasis in original.
8. The full quote reads, “The individual was seen neither as a moral whole, nor as part of a larger social whole, but as an owner of himself. The relation of ownership, having become for more and more men the critically important relation determining their actual freedom and actual prospect of realizing their full potentialities, was read back into the nature of the individual. The individual, it was thought, is free inasmuch as he (specifically he) is proprietor of his person and capacities. The human essence is freedom from dependence on the wills of others, and freedom is a function of possession.” MacPherson calls this concept “possessive individualism”