Valuable suggestions and conversations with many individuals truly helped bring this work to completion. I am indebted to Sung-Bok Kim, Charlotte Brooks, Amy Murrell Taylor, Gerald Zahavi, and Julian E. Zelizer. My biggest debt, however, is to Richard F. Hamm. Without his help this project would have been impossible.
Many archivists and librarians generously helped me during my archival research. I greatly benefited from archivists’ tips at New York State Archives in Albany and the advice of librarians in New York Public Library in New York City. I specially thank historian Marian L. Smith in the library of INS (predecessor agency of USCIS) in Washington D.C, who strongly encouraged a new researcher to bring the project to fruition. The History Department in the State University of New York at Albany funded most of my research, and the members of the history department provided lasting support through the years. Colleagues in history and in other disciplines at the University at Albany also proved to be highly beneficial: Evan Lampe, Hsiopei Yen, Sandra Mendiola, and Chad Pearson.
I am grateful to LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC in Texas for offering me an opportunity to publish a book. I also thank Jody Barron, who helped me out during the editing process. They all expertly managed both the editing and production process.
Finally, I thank friends, parents, and my husband who made a unique contribution to my ability to complete this project. I believe their support make this a better book.