1. The right to food is probably the most well developed of all ESC rights; hence, the situation is even worse in all other fields of development.
2. See the Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution website.
3. Note that my professional experience is almost exclusively in sub-Saharan Africa, which is bound to color my insights. Most important, I am likely to overestimate the impact of aid and foreigners in my writing, as the footprint of the development community is much bigger in African countries than elsewhere.
1. The General Assembly was then a body of forty-eight states, of which fourteen were Western countries (all in favor), thirty-five third-world countries (thirtythree in favor, including India, Pakistan, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, Iraq; the two that abstained were Saudi Arabia and South Africa), and seven communist countries (all abstained, with the exception of China); two countries were not present to vote.
2. The United States still took twenty-six years to ratify even this covenant and did so with so many reservations and understandings that it substantially nullified its effect. It took until 1998 for China to ratify.
1. For some excellent discussions, see An-Na’im 1992; Steiner and Alston 2000, part B.
2. Some of the major developing countries such as India, China, Cuba, Lebanon, Panama, Egypt, and the Philippines also played a role in its drafting and voted in favor; see Glendon 2002.
3. Donnelly 1999b, 68; Tatsuo 1999, 31 ff.; Ignatieff 1999. Arjun Sengupta argues that human rights are deeply imbued with the values of free-market systems, but Donnelly adds the important corrective that this is more the European, welfare-state, market system than the one that is prevalent in the United States or Hong Kong.
4. Perhaps the most important author taking such a position is Martha Nussbaum.
5. Nussbaum 1997, 275. For a nice overview of various critiques, see Kennedy 2002.
6. Nussbaum argues that this is so because of the phenomenon of “adaptive preferences”: people at the bottom of society often lower their expectations of life, to the extent of considering their fate normal and deserved, while those who are used to great luxury may deeply resent not having more (Nussbaum 1997).