1. Garrett Hardin. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 1968;162:1243–1248. Available: www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html. Also see Wikipedia’s thorough discussion of the implications and misinterpretations of Hardin’s essay (Available: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons).
2. Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution (Boston: Little, Brown, 1999).
1. M. Williams. Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003).
2. Other than Christmas trees and mistletoe, spreading Christianity suffocated most treeworshipping rituals in northern Europe during the “Dark Ages” and made tree cutting more acceptable. Christian doctrines also converted formerly beneficent tree spirits into bad or mischievous elves, gnomes, and fairies (Sir James George Frazer. The Golden Bough (London: Touchstone Books, 1995; first published 1922)).
3. John Perlin. A Forest Journey (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989), 25–68. Since the dawn of civilization, roughly 20% of primeval forest cover has been removed overall. The largest amount of removal has occurred in temperate zones in both northern and southern hemispheres (World Resources Institute. World Resources 1990–1991 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). N. Myers defines deforestation as
the complete destruction of forest cover through clearing for agriculture [so] … that not
a tree remains and the land is given over to non-forest purposes … [and where] very
heavy and unduly negligent logging … [results in a] … decline of biomass and depletion