A Commentary on Demosthenes's Philippic I: With Rhetorical Analyses of Philippics II and III

By Cecil Wooten | Go to book overview

Appendix 2: Philippic III

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: D, PHILIP,
AND ATHENS FROM 344 TO 341

There was evidently a revival of anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens around 344. Soon after the Second Philippic Hyperides, a radical democrat, indicted Philocrates, who had proposed the peace in 346, for corruption and for having deceived the Athenian people. Philocrates fled before the trial and was condemned to death in absentia. Moreover, the Athenians proposed amending the peace they had made to read that Philip and Athens would control “what was their own” rather than “what they possessed” at the time of the treaty. These terms were rejected by Philip.

It was also at this time that D renewed the charges of corruption and treason he had made against Aeschines three years earlier concerning his conduct on the embassy to Philip in 346. It was at Aeschines’ trial that D delivered the speech On the False Embassy. Aeschines was acquitted, but it is indicative of the growing anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens at this time that he was acquitted by only 30 votes out of 1501, in spite of the fact that D did not have a very good case. After this trial Philip must have realized that reconciliation with Athens, which he probably truly desired, was impossible, and he began to stir up trouble for Athens throughout the Greek world. This activity played right into D’s hands, since he had always viewed the Peace of Philocrates as nothing more than a breathing space in which Athens could prepare for the conflict with Macedonia.

To ensure control of the grain routes, Athens had sent colonists to settle in the Thracian Chersonesus. These settlers had come into conflict with the city of Cardia, which was allied with Philip. The Athenians sent out a military force, led by Diopeithes, to support their colonists, and Philip sent a garrison to Cardia. To maintain his army, Diopeithes attacked shipping in the north Aegean and made raids into parts of Thrace that Philip had incorporated into his kingdom. In 341 Philip sent a strong letter of protest to Athens. It was on this occasion that D delivered the Third Philippic. In this speech he depicts Philip as a threat, not only to Athens, but to all of Greece.

-137-

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A Commentary on Demosthenes's Philippic I: With Rhetorical Analyses of Philippics II and III
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Abbreviations and Bibliography xi
  • Introduction- Philippic I 3
  • Structure of the Speech 17
  • ΔHmoΣΘEnoyΣ Kata ΦiΛiΠΠoy A' 19
  • Commentary 37
  • Appendix 1- Philippic II 123
  • Appendix 2- Philippic III 137
  • Appendix 3- The Longer and Shorter Versions of Philippic III 167
  • Historical Index 175
  • Rhetorical Index 177
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