Note: All translations from the Japanese are by the author of the present volume unless otherwise noted.
1. See RoseLee Goldberg, Performance: From Futurism to the Present, rev. ed. (New York: Abrams, 1988).
2. Austin defines “performative” expressions as those that “do not ‘describe’ or ‘report’ or constate anything at all,” and “are not ‘true or false’”; and “the uttering of the sentence is, or is part of the doing of an action.” Examples of such expressions include “I do” and “I bet.” See J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with Words (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975), 4–7. See also Kristine Stiles, “Between Water and Stone: Fluxus Performance, A Metaphysics of Acts,” in Elizabeth Armstrong and Joan Rothfuss, In the Spirit of Fluxus (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1993), 96, n. 7. Feminist theorist Judith Butler also used the term performative in her discussion of gender construction, claiming that gender is “performative” because it “is real only to the extent that it is performed.” See Butler, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory,” in Performing Feminisms, ed. Sue-Ellen Case (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 278.
3. Dick Higgins, “Intermedia,” Something Else Newsletter 1, no. 1 (1966): i; reprinted with the 1981 addition in Dick Higgins, Horizons: The Poetics and Theory of the Intermedia (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984), 18–21. More recently Hannah Higgins expands the discussion on intermedia in Fluxus Experience (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002), 91–99.
4. The Japanese government propagated the policy of “Good Wives and Wise Mothers” while enacting the Higher Girls School Order in 1899. For a critique of this policy and its influence on women’s education in Japan, see Kazue Muta, Senryaku to siteno kazoku—Kindai Nihon no kokuminkokka keisei to josei [Family as Strategy—The Formation of a Nation and Women in Modern Japan] (Tokyo: Shinyo-sha, 1997).