1. It is worth noting that Olasky’s plan for faith–based welfare reform is informed by an explicitly evangelical Protestant vision of the human condition as fundamentally depraved and in need of moral reform through personal religious conversion. The historical role of evangelical poverty relief efforts is discussed in chapter 2 of this volume.
2. With greater autonomy and choice for states comes increased risk. Under 1996 welfare reform, block grant allocations were not to be raised until 2002 at the earliest. Consequently, states that failed to move poor citizens from temporary assistance into the paid workforce risk facing exhausted welfare coffers for a period of time.
3. The unpopularity of welfare during the 1980s led to the passage of the Family Support Act of 1988. The Family Support Act took initial strides away from an entitlement–based welfare system by requiring recipients with no children under age three to undergo a job training program, to actively seek employment, and to accept a job offer or face losing a portion of their AFDC benefits. Because many employers of low–paid personnel do not offer healthcare coverage, the Family Support Act also mandated that states provide child care and Medicaid funds for the first year of the former recipient’s employment. However, as 1996 welfare reform legislation indicates, fears of welfare dependency were not allayed by the Family Support Act.
1. In this chapter, we are selective in our use of in–text citations to primary historical sources. To be sure, all consulted sources are cited here; moreover, we are careful to acknowledge the works of authors on whose ideas we draw to support specific arguments. However, readability dictates against long string citations and the repetitive referencing of the same sources within particular sections.
2. Readers interested in more detailed treatments of many themes addressed in this chapter are encouraged to consult the following historical essays and vol-