The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854

By David R. M. Beck | Go to book overview

CHAPTER THREE
Government and Religion

At the same time as the United States attempted to establish hegemony over the Menominee political leadership and economic resources, the heavy hand of the federal government also pressed increasingly into both the religious and educational realms of the Menominee world. The Catholics had a substantial following among the Menominee, but Protestant agents opposed their influence, establishing an additional layer of conflict on the reservation. This conflict between church and government stemmed from President Grant’s peace policy, established in 1869 to clean up corruption in the Indian Office and to treat Indians as dependents rather than as enemies. The policy had two foundations or “structural elements.” One was the creation of the BIC, a civilian group that would oversee the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA)andactasa watchdog. The other was the creation of a system in which church missionary groups, rather than the federal government, would appoint the local Indian agents. Both of these elements were Protestant controlled.1

In 1870 the federal government regularly began to provide education funding for Indian reservations, even when no treaty stipulations required it to do so.2 This funding might go to government- or mission-operated schools. The conflicts that erupted on the Menominee reservation between the tribe and U.S. officials over education and other issues in the next decade had a religious component to them. A majority of Menominees were Catholic, and most of the rest followed the Mitāēwin religion. Federal officials were Protestant and opposed both. This factor further complicated tribal efforts at self-determination.


PROTESTANT-CATHOLIC CONFLICT

In 1870 the Congregationalist AMA appointed William T. Richardson as the first Green Bay agent under the new peace policy. The AMA conducted mission work among freed slaves but “had no American Indian program.” The AMA had not requested the Indian assignments it received. The Menominee were

-32-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 290

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.