The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854

By David R. M. Beck | Go to book overview

CHAPTER NINE
Termination

Federal mismanagement of their affairs and their own lack of voice in them frustrated the Menominee. They interpreted the 1908 LaFollette Act as requiring that Menominees be trained to run the mill, for example, and were increasingly angered at being passed over for leadership positions. They used the little power they had to run bad managers out of the reservation. Agency superintendents and managers at the mill were forced to leave office in succession, including three of the latter who held tenure during Fredenberg’s reign from 1934 to 1940. The Advisory Council disapproved mill budgets time and again, believing that their resources were being mismanaged.

When a new mill manager arrived again in 1940, the tribe’s attorneys warned the Menominee that the government was using tribal interference in the government’s running of Menominee affairs as an excuse for federal mismanagement in the court claims. After a short grace period, the tribe nevertheless rejected this new manager’s budget and asked that he be replaced. After the manager got into a fistfight with a Menominee in a nearby tavern, he attacked the honesty and integrity of the Menominee opposition leader. Tribal members shouted him down in a General Council meeting, “and in a dramatic outburst he resigned and left the hall.” He left at the same time as Fredenberg’s successor, Earl Woolridge, who had not enraged the tribe but had clashed with the mill manager.1 At this point, the Indian Bureau combined the agency superintendent’s and mill manager’s jobs and jurisdictions.

In 1940 the Menominee proposed an amendment to the 1908 law that would permit the tribe to manage the mill over a ten-year period under the secretary of the interior’s supervision. If their management was deemed successful, at the end of the ten years the tribe would be placed completely in charge. Some of the elders believed this plan did not go far enough in terms of selfgovernance, but the tribe generally believed this to be a move in the right direction.2

The Menominee had no interest, however, in absolving the United States of its trust responsibilities. Tribal governance remained disorganized without

-129-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 290

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.