A Grammar of Creek (Muskogee)

By Jack B. Martin; Margaret McKane Mauldin et al. | Go to book overview

5 General phonological processes

Chapters 5–8 discuss regular phonological processes that apply generally to Creek words. (Alternations associated with particular morphemes, however, are treated in later chapters where those morphemes are discussed.)


5.1 Voicing of plosives

The plosives p, t, c, k are voiced between voiced sounds. In (1), voicing occurs between vowels.

Voicing also applies between a sonorant and a vowel:

Plosives are not voiced at the ends of syllables, however:

The division of words into syllables is indicated above with periods (.) and is discussed in §6.

Voicing normally applies between elements separated in this work by a hyphen (-) (but see §6.1). Depending on phrasing (§6.4), voicing may also occur between major constituents of a sentence.

-62-

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A Grammar of Creek (Muskogee)
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations xv
  • Foreword xix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • Abbreviations and Conventions xxiii
  • The Language and Its Speakers 1
  • 1- Creek and the Creek-Speaking Peoples 3
  • 2- Overview of the Language 21
  • 3- Creek Dialects and Ways of Speaking 38
  • Phonology 45
  • 4- Phonemes 47
  • 5- General Phonological Processes 62
  • 6- The Organization of Phonemes into - Higher Units 70
  • 7- Stress and Tone in Nouns 75
  • 8- Stress, Tone, and Grades in Verbs 83
  • 9- Orthography 101
  • Nouns and Their Modifiers 105
  • 10- Nominalization 107
  • 11- Compounding 114
  • 12- Plural Nouns 127
  • 13- Size 131
  • 14- Possession 133
  • 15- Pronouns 142
  • 16- Postpositions 147
  • 17- Noun Forms with Adverbial Function 149
  • 18- Adjectival Nouns (Quantifiers) 151
  • Verbs and Their Modifiers 153
  • 19- Locative Prefixes 155
  • 20- Agreement 168
  • 21- Reflexives and Reciprocals 179
  • 22- Adding Objects- Dative and Instrumental 183
  • 23- Plural Verbs 197
  • 24- Voice Alternations- Middle -K-, Causative -IC- And -Ipeyc- 214
  • 25- Impersonals 228
  • 26- Degree 233
  • 27- Verb Forms with Adverbial Function 238
  • 28- Aspect 241
  • 29- Expressing Time- Tense and Related Notions 257
  • 30- Negation 281
  • 31- Mood 284
  • 32- ‘Be’, Auxiliaries, and Modality 298
  • 33- Numbers and Quantifiers 313
  • 34- Describing Motion and Direction 323
  • 35- Existence 328
  • 36- Sound-Symbolic Verbs 333
  • Discourse Markers 335
  • 37- Case and Switch-Reference Markers 337
  • 38- Focus of Attention Clitic 357
  • 39- Referential Clitic 360
  • 40- Other Markers 364
  • Syntax 369
  • 41- Word Order and Basic Syntax 371
  • 42- Clause Types 387
  • 43- Interpreting Pronouns, Reflexives, and Reciprocals 407
  • 44- Style 416
  • Appendices 421
  • Appendix 1 - Paradigms 423
  • Appendix 2 - Texts 436
  • Appendix 3 - List of Common Affixes 445
  • References 455
  • Index 469
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