1 Tu Wei-ming has convincingly refuted this assumption. He envisions the Confucian individual self as “a series of constantly expanding concentric circles,” “an open system,” and “a dynamic process” that reach out to the external human world and to the entire cosmos. See Tu 1985, p. 133; Roger T. Ames, et al., 1994, pp. 180–3.
2 Using a section separate from the main body of the text as a way of inserting authorial self-account was practiced in the West as well. See Georg Misch pp. 307–25.
3 A complete translation of the biographies included in Liu Xiang’s compilation is found in Albert R. O’Hara, 1971.
4 Recent scholarship has examined how laudatory accounts of women’s lives in some of the histories served social functions. See Katherine Carlitz and T’ien Ju-k’ang.
5 See Gui Youguang, pp. 267–8.
6 See Wu Meicun, pp. 1014–7.
7 See Zhang Xuecheng, pp. 56–8.
8 Allegedly written around 1809, an incomplete version of the book was first published in 1870. The World Book Company claimed to have published it in its entirety in the 1930s. It is an account of the joys and sorrows in Shen Fu’s romantic and artistic life with his wife. Leonard Pratt and Chiang Su-hui observe that, instead of writing chronologically, Shen “takes particular topics and follows them each through his life, one at a time …” They describe his six separate narratives as “layers” that Shen maps onto his “floating life.” See Introduction to Shen Fu, p. 14.
9 Lu Yin’s autobiography narrates the abuse the subject suffers as a child and her growth and achievement as a writer.
10 Autobiography of A Female Soldier tells the story of the young Bingying’s pursuit of education, struggle against foot-binding and arranged marriage, and