1. Noliwe Rooks, Hair Raising: Beauty, Culture, and African American Women (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1996).
2. Walter Daniel, Black journals of the United States (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982), 194.
3. Frankie Hutton, The Early Black Press in America, 1827–1860 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992), 57–59, argues that women have been unfairly described as oppressed by patriarchal sentiments in African American newspapers and by male editors. In terms of the historical context of women in the African American press, Hutton points out that during slavery, it was the activities and sentiments of free women that reached print. What was profiled were the ways in which such women dealt with issues like temperance, education, and general methods for uplifting the race, as well as articles that countered negative images of African American women. This was accomplished through reporting the females’ good deeds and community service.
4. Bill Gaskins, artist and professor of photography, Parson’s School of Design, in conversation with the author.
5. Ros Ballaster, Margaret Beetham, Elizabeth Frazer, and Sandra Hebron, Women’s Worlds: Ideology, Femininity, and the Woman’s Magazine (London: Macmillan, 1991), 1.
6. Abby Arthur Johnson and Ronald Maberry, Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the Twentieth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1979), 10. This work is one of the few to focus solely on magazines in African American culture between 1900 and 1976. While it does not mention any of the magazines discussed here, it does discuss African American magazines in the context of a struggle over propaganda and aesthetics.
7. Ibid., 204.
8. Penelope L. Bullock, The Afro-American Periodical Press, 1838–1909 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981), 210–212.
9. Daniel, Black Journals, 130, 373.