1. We thank an anonymous reviewer for this characterization.
2. Funding for the eleven-city Civic Capacity and Urban Education project (Clarence N. Stone, University of Maryland, Principal Investigator; Jeffrey Henig, Columbia University, CoPrincipal Investigator; Bryan Jones, University of Washington, Co-Principal Investigator) was provided by the Education and Human Services Directorate, National Science Foundation (RED9350139). Project data are available through the Center for American Politics and Public Policy (CAPP), University of Washington, http://depts. washington.edu/ampol.
3. We recognize the impressive and burgeoning literature seeking to move beyond black/white paradigms (e.g., Ancheta 1998; Kim 1999, 2002; Schmidt 2000; Lien 2001; Lien et al. 2001, 2004); our aim is to contribute a theoretically grounded, empirical analysis of local multiethnic politics to this effort.
1. These stories are drawn from Judy and Ronnie Young and Sherrie and Kermit Queenan in “DPS vs. private schools: Where’s the best education?” Denver Post July 13, 1997: 1E.
2. The Queenans are plaintiffs in the 1997 class action suit against DPS schools demanding vouchers for low income students in the face of poor training of basic skills to poor and minority students.
3. There are multiple terms in common use to distinguish different ethnic and racial groups. We primarily employ black and/or African American, Latino, and Anglo and/or white on an interchangeable basis to refer to different groups unless our data source or respondents specify a particular term.
4. We refer to “new school constituencies” to highlight the increasing Latino and Asian presence in urban public schools relative to black and white students. These broad categories obscure significant variation within each category, articulated in each of our cities by references to the number of languages spoken in each district. “New” refers to their emerging presence in urban public schools; it also reflects the presence of new immigrant student populations across racial and ethnic categories.
5. We appreciate this felicitous phrasing suggested by an anonymous reviewer.
6. While not among top ten metropolitan areas with the largest immigrant populations (as reported in Camorata 2002), the Denver MSA’s foreign-born population nearly doubled during the 1990s (Singer 2004). See Bluestone and Stevenson (2000) for a discussion of globalization impacts on Boston; Waldinger and Bozorgmehr (1997) and Bobo et al. (2000) on Los Angeles; Clark (2003, 1998) on Los Angeles and San Francisco; and Hero and Clarke (2002) on Denver.
7. Among our cases, Los Angeles was an exception to this pattern in the 1990s with Hispanics as a plurality; the 2000 Census reveals Hispanics as a majority, with white students significantly underrepresented in the school population.