1. Charles Hogue, “Cultural Entomology,” 192. Hogue advocates more research be done to further an emerging and valid field of knowledge he calls “cultural entomology.” The first colloquium on cultural entomology took place at the Seventeenth International Congress of Entomology in Hamburg in 1984.
2. Gene Kritsky, “Castle Beekeeping,” 26.
3. Charles Butler, The Feminine Monarchie: Or a Treatise Concerning Bees and the Due Ordering of Them (1609). For a discussion about gender politics that existed before Butler’s book was published, see Jeffrey Merrick, “Royal Bees.” He argues that “the hive was not a symbol of female authority to many of the French regents such as Catherine de Medici, Marie de Medici, Anne of Austria or Elizabeth I” (15).
4. Kevin Sharpe, Politics and Ideas in Early Stuart England, 54. Sharpe provides further information about the spiritual nature of Butler’s writings, which instructed all members of the commonwealth to pay tithes. Sharpe argues that subsequent writings about honey bees became more secular after the 1630s.
5. Frederick Prete, “Can Females Rule the Hive?” 125. Prete’s wonderful article traces British beekeeping texts and their audiences until the eighteenth century.
6. Carl Bridenbaugh, Vexed and Troubled Englishmen, 95.
7. Mark Kishlansky, Monarchy Transformed, 29.
8. Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker, The Many-Headed Hydra, 39.
9. Karen Ordahl Kupperman, “Beehive as a Model.” I’m grateful to Kupperman for this thoroughly researched article on bees and the social model that the English transferred to the colonies.
10. Tom Webster, interview with the author, April 2, 2004.
11. Kupperman, “Beehive as a Model,” 273.