African honey bee or Apis mellifera scutellata (AHB): This honey bee began making its way to America in 1957 and is known for its aggressive temper. However, the bees are prolific honey producers.
American Bee Journal: Samuel Wagner started this periodical in 1861, but it was suspended because of the Civil War. This magazine was taken over by Charles Dadant and moved to Hamilton, Illinois. It addresses the topics of beekeeping, bee culture, and research.
American foulbrood (AFB): This bacterial disease affects the bees in the early larvae stage. The bacterial disease forms a spore that can remain alive for fifty years. The symptoms include bad odor, perforated brood cappings, and dead pupae.
Apis mellifera: Linnaeus originally assigned this name, which first qualified the domestic honey bee race as “honey-bearing.”
Bee Culture: Begun by A. I. Root, this magazine offers advice and articles on bee management, culture, history, and so on.
Bee gum: Bees live in this log hive, generally taken from decayed black gum trees, hence the term.
Black bees or Apis mellifera mellifera (German black, British black, or French bee): This strain of honey bees was first brought to the colonies in the 1600s. These bees were hardy to cold temperatures, but were susceptible to foulbrood and ill-tempered to work with. They were the primary honey bees in the New World until Dadant, Wagner, Parsons, and Langstroth’s efforts to import the Italian honey bee succeeded.
Brood: This term refers to bees in their stages of infancy—eggs, larvae, and pupae.
Carniolan bees, or Apis mellifera carnica: These bees were imported in 1877 by Charles Dadant. They never achieved the popularity of the Italian bees, although early importers thought these were the gentlest of the bees to work with.