Lincoln on Trial: Southern Civilians and the Law of War

By Burrus M. Carnahan | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Lincoln to Winfield Scott, April 25, 1861, Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (hereafter cited as Collected Works), vol. 4, 344 (R. P. Basler ed. 1953).

2. See Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and John Hay, 51–55 (2007).

3. See Confederate States Army General Order 111, December 23, 1862, War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (hereafter cited as Official Records), series 1, vol. 15, 906; Howard Jones, “History and Mythology: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War,” in The Union, the Confederacy and the Atlantic Rim, 29, 43–45 (Robert May ed. 1995).

4. See, for example, Thomas DeLorenzo, The Real Lincoln, 171–99 (2002). When a statue of Lincoln was unveiled in Richmond, Virginia, in April 2003, protesters carried signs labeling him a “war criminal” (author’s personal observation). For similar charges from an earlier generation of anti-Lincoln writers, see Dan Monroe, “Lincoln the Dwarf: Lyon Gardiner Tyler’s War on the Mythical Lincoln,” 24 Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, 32, 35 (2003), and Matthew Norman, “An Illinois Iconoclast: Edgar Lee Masters and the Anti-Lincoln Tradition,” ibid. at 43, 51–52.

5. Noel Harrison, “Atop an Anvil: The Civilians’ War in Fairfax and Alexandria Counties, April 1861–April 1862,” 106 Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 133, 135 (1998).

6. See Stephen W. Sears, To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign, 258 (1992).

7. Charles V. Mauro, The Civil War in Fairfax County: Soldiers and Civilians, 43 (2006).

8. Ibid., 33.

9. Robert E. Lee to Jefferson Davis, September 22, 1862, Official Records, series 1, vol. 19, part 2, 617–18.

10. Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, September 22, 1862, to Generals James Longstreet and Thomas Jackson, Official Records, series 1, vol. 19, part 2, 618.

11. Michael G. Mahon, The Shenandoah Valley 1861–1865, 69–72 (1999).

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