Impacts on U.S. Energy Expenditures and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of Increasing Renewable-Energy Use: Technical Report

By Michael Toman; James Griffin et al. | Go to book overview
Electricity24
Fuels28
Policy Mechanisms for Implementing the Policy Requirements Have Important Effects on Consumer Behavior and Expenditures32
Meeting 25 Percent Requirements with Relatively Low Expenditure Impacts Requires Significant Progress in Renewable Technologies33
“Cheap Wind, Consumer Response Not Rigid” Characterize Many of the Outcomes with Lower Electricity Expenditure Change35
“Only Moderate Wind Progress, Higher-Cost Biomass, Somewhat Limited Consumer Response” Characterize Many Outcomes with Higher Electricity Expenditure Change35
“Responsive Fuel Demand, Reasonably Cheap Biomass, and Significant Progress in Biofuel Technologies” Characterize a Great Many Outcomes with Low Motor-Fuel Expenditure Change37
“Less Responsive Fuel Demand, High Marginal Biomass Costs, and Limited Progress in Biofuel Technologies” Characterize a Great Many Outcomes with High Motor-Fuel Expenditure Change38
Potential Impacts of Biomass Scarcity Can Be Especially Significant38
Policy Requirements Can Reduce CO2 Emissions Significantly, but Incremental Energy Costs per Emission Reduction Vary Widely and May Be High41
Lower-Level Renewables Requirements Reduce Expenditure Changes44
Energy Security and Energy Prices45
What Happens If Future Oil Prices Are Well Above Reference Levels?46
CHAPTER FOUR Concluding Remarks49
References51
APPENDIXES
A. Baseline Data and Numerical-Parameter Assumptions (CD)1
B. Detailed Model Results (CD)1

-vi-

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Impacts on U.S. Energy Expenditures and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of Increasing Renewable-Energy Use: Technical Report
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Summary xi
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Chapter One- Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two- How We Did the Analysis 5
  • Chapter Three- Key Findings 23
  • Chapter Four- Concluding Remarks 49
  • References 51
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