This project has benefited from multiple interactions and conversations with many in the Air Force community charged with reinvigorating the Air Force nuclear enterprise, including Lt Gen Frank Klotz, Lt Gen Robert Elder (Ret.), Maj Gen Donald Alston, Col Mike Shoults, Col Kirk Fansher, Col Stephen Lucky, Charles Henderson, and James Blackwell. In addition, the work benefited from dialog with the RAND program director who initiated this work, David Ochmanek, and our RAND colleagues, David Mosher, Lowell Schwartz, Roger Molander, and David Frelinger. Lynn Davis revised a first draft of this document to greatly sharpen the final monograph. David Aaron and Jacob W. Kipp reviewed an earlier draft and provided helpful suggestions on how to improve our arguments. Caroline Reilly prepared the range maps that demonstrate the new military geography and range scale for Europe.