Canada has been largely free of indigenously based terrorism in recent years, with the main manifestations of current domestic political extremism arising from the activities of neo-Nazis and violent fringe elements of ecological, animal-rights, and antiglobalization movements. However, the country has been decisively affected by the spillover effects of overseas conflicts and continues to act as a highly important hub of political, financial, and logistical support for Sikh and Islamic radicalism as well as ethnonationalist separatist movements originating in the Middle East, Central and South Asia, and Africa (CSIS, 2005a, p. 5; CSIS, 2007b, p. 6).
With the possible exception of the United States and the United Kingdom, Canada has played “host” to more international terrorist organizations than any other state in the world. Indeed, in the past decade, “representatives” of Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Groupe Islamique Armé [Armed Islamic Group] (GIA), al Qaeda and its affiliates, the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), the Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan [Kurdish Workers’ Party] (PKK), Babbar Khalsa, and the Dashmesh Regiment are all known to have entered the country and engaged in a variety of lobbying, fund-raising, and other logistical-support pursuits.1 It is toward the mitigation of these activities that the bulk of Canada’s CT
1 To a large extent, this situation results from the fact that the state, which has been founded on a commitment to immigration and ethnonational and religious tolerance, represents a source of political refuge that has been effectively exploited by extremist elements from around the globe.