Domestic Intelligence Agencies After September
11, 2001: How Five Nations Have Grappled with
the Evolving Threat
Since 9/11, many nations have struggled with both policy and legal challenges as they come to terms with the rapidly evolving security environment and the role their domestic intelligence agencies should play in it. In their efforts to better prepare for current and emerging threats, some nations have made significant changes to their domestic intelligence structures and practices. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated communication technology; mounting instances of amateur, homegrown terror cells; the prospect of the global diffusion of low-cost yet lethal tactics; and suicide attacks and the use of improvised explosives have combined to make domestic security more complicated. They have also raised questions about the appropriate powers for domestic intelligence agencies in democratic societies. In some countries, efforts to reform intelligence policies in light of these new threats have encouraged governments to redefine key relationships between agencies and adjust the balance between public safety and civil liberties.
In recent years, a number of large-scale attacks have occurred in Western nations and many high-profile plots have been disrupted. These events have affected the ways in which the five nations profiled in this book approach domestic intelligence. The experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom provide some insights into the role of domestic intelligence in contemporary CT operations and some of the associated challenges. These cases also