Considering the Creation of a Domestic Intelligence Agency in the United States: Lessons from the Experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

By Brian A. Jackson | Go to book overview

CHAPTER EIGHT
Conclusions: Lessons for the United States
Peter Chalk, Lindsay Clutterbuck, Brian A. Jackson, and Richard Warnes1In considering the creation of a domestic intelligence agency in the United States, the experiences of other countries that already have such agencies can be instructive. However, differences in the legal, social, and historical circumstances in those countries and in the public’s attitude and reaction to intelligence and security efforts—among other idiosyncrasies—make it impossible to simply extrapolate the experiences of others and use them to predict the best way of creating such an organization in the United States. This approach would also not be able to accurately gauge whether the organization would be successful if it were created or whether even a successful organization would be acceptable to the public. Looking across the five case studies of democracies with stand-alone intelligence agencies does, however, suggest some common themes:
Most of the countries have seen explicit value in placing domestic intelligence-gathering activities in agencies that have no law enforcement powers of arrest or detention. This separation facilitates intelligence-gathering efforts but poses challenges when prosecuting individuals for terrorism-related offenses is necessary.
Most of the nations with domestic intelligence agencies have a system of external oversight, often by multiple bodies, that, in principle, acts as a check on the agencies’ potential power.

1 This discussion was crafted from the contributions made by each listed author. Author names are presented in alphabetical order.

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Considering the Creation of a Domestic Intelligence Agency in the United States: Lessons from the Experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figure and Tables xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two - Australia 13
  • Chapter Three - Canada 43
  • Chapter Four - France 65
  • Chapter Five - Germany 93
  • Chapter Six - The United Kingdom 115
  • Chapter Seven - Domestic Intelligence Agencies after September 11, 2001- How Five Nations Have Grappled with the Evolving Threat 143
  • Chapter Eight - Conclusions- Lessons for the United States 161
  • References 171
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