From Ethnic Conflict to Stillborn Reform: The Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia

By Shale Horowitz | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 10
Serbia

With the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia inherited the rump of the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA). From June, 1991, through January, 1992, JNA forces fought alongside Croatian Serb and Serbia-based paramilitaries. JNA support guaranteed the initial victory of the Croatian Serbs, in which they gained control of about one-third of Croatia’s territory. From April, 1992, a similar war soon gave Bosnian Serb forces control of two-thirds of Bosnian territory. In later stages of these wars, Croatian and Bosnian Serb forces were left to fight alone— although Serbia continued to support them with money and arms. In late 1995, Croatian, Bosnian Croat, and Bosnian Muslim forces won rapid and decisive victories. Croatian Serb communities fled or were expelled en masse; Bosnian Serbs were forced to settle for smaller and more vulnerable possessions, within a Bosnian state dominated by Muslims and Croats.

In late 1998, in response to increased attacks on Serbian police and civilians by the ethnic Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (UCK), Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević initiated an ethnic-cleansing strategy in Kosovo. From March, 1999, NATO commenced massive air strikes to compel Serbian forces to withdraw and acquiesce to Albanian self-rule. As NATO preparations for a ground war intensified in June, Milošević yielded and withdrew Serbian forces from Kosovo.

Under the cover of the series of wars and the resulting international economic sanctions, market reforms were repeatedly postponed and compromised. Democracy was similarly compromised. Milošević selectively used democratic procedures to take power. But in an effort to retain power, he routinely restricted the independent mass media, intimidated the political opposition, and tampered with elections. However, Milošević did not completely stifle democratic procedures. In the aftermath of the disastrous Kosovo War, this was his undoing.

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From Ethnic Conflict to Stillborn Reform: The Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Tables x
  • Part 1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Democratization and Market Reform in War-Torn Post- Communist States 3
  • Chapter 2 - Theory, Statistical Tests, and Literature Review 27
  • Part II - The Former Soviet Union 55
  • Chapter 3 - Azerbaijan 57
  • Chapter 4 - Armenia 73
  • Chapter 5 - Georgia 89
  • Chapter 6 - Moldova 108
  • Chapter 7 - Tajikistan 127
  • Part III - The Former Yugoslavia 143
  • Chapter 8 - Croatia 145
  • Chapter 9 - Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Muslims, Croats, and Serbs 164
  • Chapter 10 - Serbia 186
  • Part IV - Conclusions 209
  • Chapter 11 - War and the Contradictions of Reform Nationalism 211
  • Notes 225
  • References 249
  • Index 271
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