The materials used in the preparation of this study consist primarily of testimony and exhibits from the trials of Tihomir Blaskic, Dario Kordic and Mario Cerkez, and others before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague from 1998–2001. Testimony in the various trials is cited by the name of the witness, the trial, and the date of the testimony (e.g., Brigadier Ivica Zeko, Blaskic trial testimony, Sept. 11, 1998). Most of the exhibits cited were presented by the prosecutor and are identified in the case of the Kordic-Cerkez trial by KC with a Z in the exhibit number (e.g., KC Z1212), or in the case of the Blaskic trial by B with no alpha designator (e.g., B 323). Other documents were presented as defense exhibits in the various trials and are identified with a D in the exhibit number (e.g., KC D123; B D234). The daily Military Information Summaries (MILINFOSUMs) produced by the British UNPROFOR units in central Bosnia—the 1st Battalion, 22d (Cheshire) Regiment; the 1st Battalion, Prince of Wales’s Own Regiment of Yorkshire; the 1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards; and commander, British Forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina—are cited as 1Cheshire MILINFOSUM, 1PWO MILINFOSUM, 1CSG MILINFOSUM, and COMBRITFOR MILINFOSUM respectively. Published works are cited in the usual way.
1. Edward Vulliamy, Seasons in Hell: Understanding Bosnia’s War, 179–80.
2. The ABiH as it existed in late 1992 was composed almost exclusively of forces raised on the old Yugoslavian National Army Territorial Defense pattern. Its units were generally tied to a given geographical area and were not “mobile” in the sense that an American or British infantry battalion is mobile (i.e., available for deployment outside the immediate vicinity of its home station).
3. The infamous 7th Muslim Motorized Brigade, composed in part of mujahideen and the principal assault unit of the ABiH’s III Corps, was formed on November 17, 1992, and the mobile 17th and 27th Krajina Mountain Brigades were formed from Muslim refugees in Croatia in November, 1992, and June, 1993, respectively and subsequently moved into Bosnia-Herzegovina.
4. The unsubstantiated opinion that the Muslim-Croat conflict in central Bosnia was precipitated by Croat insistence on early implementation of the VOPP surfaced early in the conflict. For example, Lt. Col. Robert A. Stewart, commander of the British UNPROFOR battalion in the Lasva Valley, recorded in his diary that he had expressed to the Equerry to the Prince of Wales his belief that “the HVO were causing problems in order to force the Muslims to agree to the Geneva Peace Plan” (Stewart diary, Jan. 29, 1993, sec. 3, 12, KC D56/1 and KC D104/1). It has also been promoted by journalists (e.g., Peter Maas in Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War, n 286); by human rights organizations (e.g., Helsinki Watch [Human Rights Watch] in War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 2:379–81); and in other Western publications (e.g., Jane’s Information Group, Jane’s Bosnia Handbook, sec. 2, 3–4).
5. Franjo Nakic, Kordic-Cerkez trial testimony, Apr. 13, 2000. Nakic was chief of staff of the HVO’s OZCB from December, 1992, to December, 1996.