The Health Consequences of Smoking--50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General

By Office of the Surgeon General | Go to book overview

Chapter 7
Respiratory Diseases
Introduction355
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease355
Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease356
Gender Effects in COPD358
Prevalence by Gender359
Gender-Specific Manifestations of COPD359
Gender-Specific Morbidity and Mortality360
Genetics and Genomics of COPD361
Rare Genetic Syndromes with COPD361
Common Genetic Determinants of COPD363
Pathogenesis of COPD367
Changes in Views of COPD Pathogenesis During the Past 50 Years367
Lessons from Imaging Studies369
Evidence Synthesis370
Conclusions370
Implications371
Asthma371
Biologic Mechanisms371
Description of the Literature Review372
Epidemiologic Evidence372
Smoking and the Incidence of Asthma in Children and Adolescents372
Evidence Synthesis372
Conclusion373
Smoking and the Exacerbation of Asthma Among Children and Adolescents373
Evidence Synthesis373
Conclusion373
Smoking and the Incidence of Asthma in Adults374
Evidence Synthesis374
Conclusion374
Smoking and the Exacerbation of Asthma in Adults374
Evidence Synthesis375
Conclusion376
Implications376
Tuberculosis376
Biologic Mechanisms376
Natural History of Tuberculosis377
Description of the Literature Review377
Epidemiologic Evidence377
Risk Factors: Potential Confounders and Modifiers377
Tobacco and TB379

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