1. Out of respect for our subjects, throughout this book we have left people’s spoken or written (Internet or other means of communication) uncorrected, unchanged from their original form. This is in line with what has been prescribed as part of the postmodern turn in ethnography, where giving participants’ voice, in their own vernacular, is a hallmark of the epistemology (see Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, and Lather, 2001). However, all names used in this book are pseudonyms.
2. These typically required a minimum 30-day visit at a cost of $1,000 per day.
3. Conboy, Medina, and Stanbury, 1997; Cregan, 2006; Featherstone, Hepworth, and Turner, 1991; Howson, 2005; Shilling, 2003; Turner, 1984; Waskul and Vannini, 2006.
4. Foucault, 1979.
5. Synott, 1993.
6. Waskul and van der Riet, 2002.
7. Martinson, 1998. See also Briere and Gil, 1998; Langbehn and Pfohl, 1993; Nock et al., 2006.
8. Favazza and Conterio (1989), Gratz (2001), Herpertz (1995), and Whitlock, Eckenrode, and Silverman (2006) have also suggested that multiple methods of self-injuring are the most common.
9. In a 2006 study of a nontreatment sample, Whitlock, Eckenrode, and Silverman (2006) found scratching the most common form of self-injury.
10. As recently as the second half of the twentieth century, Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II practiced self-flagellation for religious purposes (Pope John XXIII, 1999; Yallop, 2007).
11. Favazza, 1987, 1998.
12. Favazza 1987, 1998; Jacobs 2000.
13. Asch, 1971; Clendenin and Murphy, 1971; Graff and Mallin, 1967; Gruenbaum and Klerman, 1967; Rosenthal et al., 1972; and Weissman, 1975.
14. Morgan, 1979; Pao, 1969; Pattison and Kahan, 1983; and Waisman, 1965.
15. Some popular treatments that came to public attention at around this time included films such as Girl Interrupted, Nightmare on Elm Street III, and Secretary, television shows with episodes on cutting such as ER, documentary treatments on the Learning Channel, popular songs such as “Hurt” by Nine Inch Nails, “Crawling” by Linkin Park, and “Last Resort” by Papa Roach.
16. See self-injury.net, “Famous Self-Injurers,” www.self-injury.net/doyousi/famous.htm.