1. Dante, Divine Comedy, vol. 3, Paradiso, canto XVII, lines 58–60 (“Tu proverai sì come sa di sale lo pane altrui, e come è duro calle lo scendere e ‘l salir per l’altrui scale”).
2. Dante, Divine Comedy, vol. 1, Inferno, canto XXIII, lines 94–95 (“I’ fui nato e cresciuto sovra ‘l bel fume d’Arno a la gran villa”).
3. The Latin quote is from Dante’s letters V, VI and VII, in Dantis Alagherii Epistolae/Le Lettere di Dante: Testo, versione, commento e appendici, ed. A. Monti (Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1921), 92, 134 and 180. See also C. Honess, “Feminine Virtues and Florentine Vices: Citizenship and Morality in Paradiso XV–XVII,” in Dante and Governance, ed. J. Woodhouse (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), 102–120; as well as G. Petronio, L’attività letteraria in Italia: Storia della letteratura (Florence: Palumbo, 1980), 82–84.
4. H. Nelson Gay, “Garibaldi’s American Contacts and His Claims to American Citizenship,” American Historical Review 38, no. 1 (1932): 1–19.
5. Ibid. Also, Garibaldi could not have become an American citizen anyway because, despite having received an American passport in 1851 and living on American soil in 1851 and 1854, he did not fulfill the five-year residence requirement for an alien to naturalize in the United States. Ibid., 6–7 and 16–19.
6. P. Magnette, La citoyenneté: Une histoire de l’idée de participation civique (Brussels: Bruylant, 2001); and P. Riesenberg, Citizenship in the Western Tradition: Plato to Rousseau (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).
7. See the collection of essays by G. Shafir, ed., The Citizenship Debates: A Reader (Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, 1998); as well as the concise article of W. Kymlicka and W. Norman, “Return of the Citizen: A Survey of Recent Work on Citizenship Theory,” Ethics 104, no. 1 (1994): 352–381.
8. P. Weis, Nationality and Statelessness in International Law, 2nd ed. (Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands, Germantown, Md.: Sijthof and Noordhof, 1979), 4–5.
9. J. Rawls, “Justice as Fairness in the Liberal Polity,” in Shafir, Citizenship Debates, 53–72.
10. On the communitarian approach, see A. Oldfield, Citizenship and Com-