Days of National Festivity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1823-1889

By Hendrik Kraay | Go to book overview

Currency, Orthography, Names, Pseudonyms,
and Note Conventions

During the nineteenth century, the Brazilian currency was the mil-réis, 1,000 réis (singular, real), written 1$000; 1,000 mil-réis was known as a conto, and was written 1:000$000. The mil-réis fluctuated considerably in value from 1822 to the end of the century, although it averaged around US$0.50. To make rough comparisons possible, I provide U.S. dollar equivalents for the mil-réis figures mentioned in the text.1

Portuguese orthography has undergone a number of changes since the nineteenth century; following convention, I have modernized the spelling of names and book and newspaper titles in the text, retaining the original spelling in the notes and bibliography, except when, by convention, the archaic spelling is used.

No clear rules governed nineteenth-century Brazilian naming practices. Individuals were often known by a distinctive part of their first or last names. I provide the full names on first mention of people in each chapter, after which I use the portion of the name by which they were most commonly known.

Many of the newspaper articles cited in the following pages were published anonymously or under pseudonyms. If the author is known, I provide his name after the pseudonym in the note.2 All italics and other emphases in quoted passages appeared in the original. Unless otherwise indicated, all of the newspapers cited were published in Rio de Janeiro. Many articles, particularly editorials, appeared without headlines or titles. Where there was a title or headline, I have included it (but not the subtitle). After the title, I sometimes indicate the section of the newspaper in which the article appeared; unfortunately, I did not collect this information systematically at the start of my research, so my information is incomplete.

-ix-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Days of National Festivity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1823-1889
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 562

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.